African economic growth to slow: IMF

first_img13 March 2009The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has warned that Africa’s economic growth will be affected by the continuing world economic crisis, predicting that growth in sub-Saharan Africa will slow to 3.25% this year, half the growth rate it previously projected.The slump in commodity prices and the credit squeeze are the main culprits, the IMF said in a report released this week ahead of a major IMF conference on the crisis due to take place in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on Tuesday.External supportThe conference was called to discuss what external support the IMF and other Western donors might be able to provide to help mitigate the impact of the crisis on Africa, which has the highest poverty rate of any region in the world.In recent years, many African countries have enjoyed strong growth rates, boosted by rising commodity prices, including oil.“The gains of the past decade, during which many countries in sub-Saharan Africa saw sustained high rates of economic growth and rising income levels, are at risk,” said IMF African department director Antoinette Sayeh.Less than a year ago, the IMF’s forecast for sub-Saharan Africa was economic growth of 6.7% in 2009, up from the 5.0% growth enjoyed in 2008.The new low-growth forecast means that many African countries are likely to see very little increase in living standards, and could fall further behind in meeting their poverty reduction targets.15 African countries ‘vulnerable’The IMF report says that 15 of the 21 countries which it judges as most vulnerable to the crisis are in Africa, and that many countries will not have the funds necessary to protect the poor from the affects of the downturn and may need external help.“While African policy makers are rising to this unexpected challenge, donors must also play their part. They must maintain their commitments and scale up, not scale back, their support.”The IMF added that while Africa has little direct exposure to the credit crisis as its banks have not invested much, if at all, in the problematic financial assets at the heart of the crisis, the global downturn has undermined demand for many industrial commodities, which are important exports for several African countries.These include oil in the case of Nigeria, Angola and Equatorial Guinea, and copper in the case of Zambia.Reduced financial flowsAfrica is also likely to be hit by reduced financial flows from abroad, including fewer remittances and less foreign direct investment.However, providing more aid could prove controversial. The IMF itself is expected to ask for a substantial increase in its funding at the summit of the Group of 20 (G20) leading developed and emerging countries in London next month, but it is not certain whether such additional funds will be forthcoming.As the IMF points out, foreign aid historically declines during an economic downturn.Source: BuaNewslast_img read more

Call to save Africa’s forests

first_img6 December 2011Experts warned of a new wave of deforestation in Africa, while emphasizing the importance of forests in slowing climate change, at Forest Day 5 during the COP 17 climate summit in Durban on Sunday.“It is urgent to safeguard Africa’s forests, not only because they slow climate change, but also because they act as a final barrier to creeping desertification, underpin sustainable agricultural production, and support the livelihoods of tens of millions of rural poor,” said Frances Seymour, director-general of the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).South Africa’s Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tina Joemat-Pettersson, cited expert opinions indicating that a new wave of deforestation is sweeping across Africa.“South Africa regards climate change as one of the greatest threats to sustainable development and believes that climate change, if unmitigated, has the potential to undo or undermine many of the positive advances made in meeting South Africa’s own development goals and the Millennium Development Goals,” said Joemat-Pettersson.Joemat-Pettersson called for a collective, comprehensive international programme on adaptation that provides access to significantly up-scaled finance, technology and capacity building for all developing countries.“The socio-economic impact of climate change is predicted to range from severe to disastrous for all, and will require extensive action to adjust and adapt to a changing climate,” said Joemat-Pettersson.Bob Scholes from South Africa’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research said: “The next major wave of deforestation is already here and it is happening in Africa. If we can do something to influence deforestation we can have a greater effect than everything that has happened so far under the Kyoto Protocol.”The president of the African Wildlife Foundation, Helen Gichohi said: “The disappearing forests, the overgrazed rangelands, and conversion to crop agriculture of grasslands and wetlands that had served as a refuge to drought, have all diminished the resilience of ecosystems.”Gichohi said nine percent of forest cover had been lost between 1995 and 2005 across sub-Saharan Africa, representing an average loss of 40 000 square kilometres of forest per year.Kenya has lost the majority of its forest cover to settlements and agriculture, leaving only 1.7 percent of its land still forested.“Forests cannot be sustained if people are hungry or governance of natural resources is inadequate,” said Rachel Kyte, vice-president of Sustainable Development at the World Bank.“Hunger places a direct burden on forests when people are forced to push deeper into forested areas to grow crops … or resort to making and selling charcoal in order to buy food.”Source: BuaNewslast_img read more

iPad Dominates Third Quarter Tablet Shipments, Almost 90% of Market

first_imgRelated Posts IDC predicts the popularity of these devices will continue to accelerate, not surprising, as the fourth quarter figures will include what’s already reported to have been a blockbuster holiday season for Apple and Amazon. IDC says the tablet market is expected to finish 2010 with nearly 17 million units sold and predicts that almost 45 million will ship in 2011 and almost 71 million in 2012. Growth in the coming year will be fueled by new Android-based tablets, according to IDC, which sees an increasing demand in both consumer and commercial settings.IDC also predicts strong year-end figures for e-readers and continued growth in the coming year. IDC forecasts 14.7 million e-readers to ship in 2011 and 16.6 million in 2012, a growth curve that seems nowhere near as steep as that for tablets. The worldwide media tablet market grew by 45% in the third quarter of 2010, reports the International Data Corporation (IDC), crediting Apple’s iPad as the main driving force behind the growing demand.According to figures released today, vendors shipped 4.8 million units globally in the third quarter of 2010, compared to 3.3 million units in the second quarter, with Apple’s iPad representing 87.4% of tablets shipped.iPad Dominates Tablets, Kindle Dominates E-ReadersThe report finds the popularity of tablets was accompanied with increased adoption of e-readers as well, with a 40% growth over the second quarter; 2.7 million e-readers were shipped in the third quarter, with the U.S. comprising almost 75% of the world e-reader market. And although its dominance isn’t nearly as striking as Apple’s over the world of tablets, Amazon’s Kindle rules e-readers with a nearly 42% share of the market. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting audrey watters A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Tags:#Amazon#Apple#NYT#web 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more

Combining Sheathing With a WRB and Air Barrier

first_imgHow are the two systems different?(1) Lamination of WRB facer – Zip’s proprietary overlay is an integral part of the OSB manufacturing process; that means that the overlay (or membrane) is fused during the compression formation of the bed of strands and resins into OSB panels. The ForceField System proprietary overlay is glue-laminated to the OSB panels after the fact.(2) The OSB face used for the WRB differs – Zip System panels uses the “rough” side of their OSB for the WRB overlay; ForceField System uses the “smooth” side of their OSB for the WRB overlay.(3) Roof sheathing – All Zip System panels are approved as a structural sheathing panel and underlayment for roofs; ForceField System panels are not.(4) Compliance with key ICC Acceptance Criteria (AC) – Zip System panels full comply with AC310 — Acceptance Criteria for Water-Resistive Membranes Factory-Bonded to Wood-Based Structural Sheathing, Used as Water-Resistive Barriers. Zip tape fully complies with AC148 — Acceptance Criteria for Flexible Flashing Materials. On the other hand, ForceField System panels and tape are not documented as compliant with these key standards. (Note: In images #2 through #4, below, samples of Zip System panel are subjected to an “Overlay Bond Durability Test,” a test modified from AC310. It’s frankly remarkable that after boiling and drying and subjected to pull-apart stress, the failure is not at the bond between the WRB overlay and the OSB; it fails largely by separating strands from the surface of the OSB. It’s not possible to conduct this test on ForceField System sheathing; the WRB facer or overlay delaminates completely from the OSB during the boiling phase of the test.)The tapes also differ:(1) Zip System tape is much thicker than ForceField tape (Zip – 0.012 inch; ForceField – 0.003 inch) and has a polyolefin backer. The ForceField tape backer is described as a polymeric film.(2) Zip System tape comes 90 feet to a roll; ForceField System tape comes 180 feet in a roll. ForceField System tape can be hand-torn to length; Zip System tape must be cut to length.(3) When installed, Zip System tape must be rolled as stipulated in the manufacturer’s directions and not loaded for a minimum of one hour, while the ForceField System tape can be applied with just hand pressure and achieves its full adhesion nearly immediately.(4) ForceField system tape is approved by the manufacturer for installation down to 0°F; Zip System tape is currently manufacturer-approved down to 20°F.Finally, the warranties differ:(1) The ForceField warranty is described as “Lifetime Limited” to the original owner, and is non-transferable. The Zip system warranty is described as “30-year System Limited” to the original owner.(2) The Zip System warranty covers all system components: OSB panels, Zip overlay, Zip tape, and Zip liquid flash; ForceField limits their warranty to just their OSB panels.(3) Coverage – ForceField’s warranty states, “In the event of Product Delamination… GP will… either repair or replace the nonconforming portion of the Product, or reimburse you twice the original retail purchase price.” The Zip System warranty states, “…the system …will satisfy the Air and Water Resistance Properties Test…” and “[the warranty] is limited to the repair or replacement, at HEW’s option, of materials giving rise to the failure to comply with this warranty.” Wingnut testing of the two systemsMany of you may know about my frustration with laboratory standardized testing under conditions that are fundamentally different from what happens on job sites. (Please see Two Wingnuts Describe Their Backyard Tape Tests or the BuildingGreen blog content, Sticky Business, for more information on the work of the Wingnut Test Facility).The following information is strictly anecdotal, and represents my own attempt to stress each system, with an admittedly woeful sample size of one sample per test.Straight-Pull Test (see Images #5 and #6, below).I followed the manufacturer’s installation instructions for each system and used a “fish scale” to measure how much force the system withstood. You can see that both systems have very strong bonds between the facer and the PSA tape, withstanding up to 50 pounds of force in this test. Note that the Zip System tape stretches with the force while the ForceField System tape has little to no give.Perpendicular-Load Test Split Substrates Including Window Flange (see Images #7 through #12, below).This test was developed to better represent the forces that tapes and substrates could experience at a window installation, where one-half of the tape adheres to the wall sheathing and one-half adheres to the window flange. (We used both PVC and aluminum flanges.) A 3/8-inch slot in the panel represents the gap between the round opening and the window unit.For all the details of this test, see the “Wingnut Test Facility – WTF Field- and Benchtop-Testing of Building Materials & Systems, BuildingGreen, Inc. September 16, 2015.”When I set up this test in my garage recently, I followed the protocol and had the tests underway at around noon on Thursday (June 15, 2017), doing the initial wetting with a spray bottle. I applied 10 squirts (about 6 milliliters) to the front and back of each panel. (When spraying the back side where water could “pool,” I inverted the panel to “drain” any standing water out of the slot).When I returned to the garage at 5:30 p.m., both ForceField setups had failed, while both Zip System sheathing and tape setups were still holding. As you can see from the photos, on the setup with aluminum flange, the tape let go at the flange, while on the setup with the PVC flange, the tape let go of the ForceField panel.In the past, when testing multiple tapes, this test has gone on for weeks and then months, with some systems failing in the first day. In particular, the Zip System sheathing and tape setups persisted for more than a year of outdoor temperature and relative humidity swings and repeated wetting on both surfaces. And while other PSA tapes worked better on either the PVC flange or the aluminum flange, Zip System tape held just fine with both PVC and aluminum window flanges.Wetting, then perpendicular pull, test (Images #13 through #15).In this test, I drilled a round hole in one square, taped that square to another square, and then wetted the hanging results about 10 times, spraying water over the top edge of the top square, on the face of both squares and tape, and around the round hole. I did this to simulate the exposure to rain that could happen if the panels were up on a building but not yet taped or sealed around penetrations.When I did the perpendicular pull test, the average force to separate the tape from the panel was 5 pounds for the ForceField System sheathing and tape and 20 pounds for the Zip System sheathing and tape. You can see in the last photo that the surface of the ForceField has become “rougher” with the repeated wetting, and some of the ForceField System facer has pulled off, while the Zip System square shows no signs of any facer delamination.I did not observe any deterioration. Nor did I test around the holes I drilled. (Essentially, I ran out of time on this test.) What do you call these two systems?It can be difficult to even just name these product systems. Huber states that “Zip System sheathing and tape is an innovative structural roof and wall system with an integrated water and air barrier.”Georgia-Pacific states, “The ForceField air and water barrier system from Georgia-Pacific consists of structural engineered wood sheathing panels laminated with a proprietary air and water barrier.”So, these systems combine structural sheathing with a water-resistive barrier (WRB) and an air barrier. Full Disclosure: First, there are a lot of different ways to get continuous air and water control layers on the exterior of a building enclosure. You can use housewrap, taped-and-sealed rigid foam insulation, liquid-applied membrane, or either the Huber Zip or Georgia-Pacific ForceField system. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses.All things considered, I prefer the performance delivered by Zip System sheathing and tape. But when I learned about ForceField, I decided to dig into how these two systems compare.Second, I have done quite a bit of work with Huber Engineered Woods, the manufacturer of Zip sheathing, because of the company’s support for the Wingnut Test Facility and a new Hanley-Wood educational series on high-performance building (Home Building Crossroads). Their support to my work is technical, not financial. I did receive test sample materials from both Georgia-Pacific and Huber for this blog. For ForceField, the primary third-party reference is APA Product Report PR-N136 (revised December 14, 2016). Third-party assessmentsThe primary third-party reference for the technical properties and performance of the Zip system is ICC-ES Report ESR-1474 (re-issued 10/2016). RELATED ARTICLES Wall Sheathing OptionsZip Sheathing TipsTwo Wingnuts Describe Their Backyard Tape TestsReturn to the Backyard Tape TestBackyard Tape TestAirtight Wall and Roof SheathingIs OSB Airtight?How to Design a Wallcenter_img In addition to acting as GBA’s technical director, Peter Yost is the Vice President for Technical Services at BuildingGreen in Brattleboro, Vermont. He has been building, researching, teaching, writing, and consulting on high-performance homes for more than twenty years. An experienced trainer and consultant, he’s been recognized as NAHB Educator of the Year. Do you have a building science puzzle? Contact Pete here. You can also sign up for BuildingGreen’s email newsletter to get a free report on avoiding toxic insulation, as well as regular posts from Peter. How are the two systems similar?The common elements of Zip and ForceField are:(1) 7/16-inch OSB panels, rated as Exposure 1, Department of Commerce Product Standard 2 (DOC PS 2), Structural 1-rated. Note that all Zip panel thicknesses are available Structural 1-rated; ForceField offers Structural 1 as an option for ForceField.(2) Each has a proprietary, vapor-permeable, factory-applied “overlay” applied to the exterior face of the OSB.(3) Each system includes a proprietary, pressure-sensitive acrylic (PSA) or modified-acrylic tape. (Neither tape has release paper.)(4) Easy system includes supplemental flashing for rough openings and sheathing margins (a proprietary GP flashing tape for ForceField and proprietary stretch flashing tape and liquid sealant for use with Zip System panels). Summing upAny system relying on PSA tape for both watertightness and airtightness is breaking the first law of building science: physics trumps chemistry. Having said that, it is almost impossible to achieve high-performance levels of airtightness without sticky chemistry. So if you are going to break that first law by having the leading top edge of the tape not protected by a lap, you had better have a lot of faith in the bond between the tape and all its substrates.The second law of building science is to shelter or protect your air and water management systems. But how do you shelter them without burying them where they are difficult or impossible to inspect, repair, or replace?I include this context to emphasize just how important are the bonds between substrates and tapes, both for the Zip System and the ForceField System. They have to maintain their bonds for the life of the assembly, because inspection and repair or replacement means taking the assembly apart.The bonds between the Zip System facer and OSB, between the Zip System tape and the Zip facer, and the the bond between the Zip tape and key assembly materials such as PVC and aluminum window flanges, are all more robust than those of the ForceField system. This is supported by both standardized test results and Wingnut Test Facility benchtop testing.Some might argue that these bonds represent overkill in the Zip System; perhaps the ForceField System bonds are perfectly sound and represent an improvement over other approaches to air and water barrier systems. For my money, thought, the consequences of being wrong on this are too critical to go with a reduced safety margin.A final note: For the best bond, PSA tape should be applied on dry, clean substrates under mild temperature conditions. But perhaps the most important condition is pressure. It’s pressure that activates or “wets” the adhesive and allows it to flow so that it achieves maximum surface area contact with the substrate. You can’t press a tape too much, but you can press it too little! Wingnut Test Facility.pdflast_img read more

Rockets’ Chris Paul expected to return Thursday vs Suns

first_imgMOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles03:491.8M visitors expected at Manila North Cemetery for ‘Undas’ 201901:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Blatche finally headed to Manila for Gilas duties, apologizes for delay Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 D’Antoni says: “He’s ready to go.”The Rockets have played well despite his absence, with James Harden leading the Rockets to an 11-4 record, second in the Western Conference behind the Warriors.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutThe 32-year-old Paul will play restricted minutes as he eases his way back, but D’Antoni wouldn’t say exactly how many minutes that would be.Paul says he still has a way to go, but he’s excited to be nearing his return. LATEST STORIES Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Houston Rockets’ Chris Paul chases a basketball amid lighting and fog machines while he takes part in a promotional video shoot during an NBA basketball media day, Monday, Sept. 25, 2017, in Houston. (AP Photo/Michael Wyke)HOUSTON — Chris Paul is expected to return for the Houston Rockets on Thursday night after missing all but one game this season with a bruised left knee.The point guard, who is in his first year with the Rockets after a trade from the Clippers, returned to practice on Wednesday. Coach Mike D’Antoni says the plan is for him to start on Thursday when Houston visits the Phoenix Suns.ADVERTISEMENT Read Next View commentslast_img read more

CWG scam: Three former officials remanded to 3-day CBI custody

first_imgA Delhi court on Monday remanded to three-day CBI custody three close top aides of CWG Organising Committee chairman Suresh Kalmadi who were arrested in New Delhi in connection with alleged bungling in the Queen’s Baton Relay (QBR) in London last year.”In order to fully unearth the conspiracy of the accused, the accused are remanded to three days custody till November 25,” Special CBI Judge A S Yadav said after T S Darbari, Sanjay Mahendroo and M Jayachandran, all sacked from the OC, were produced before him.While Darbari and Mahendroo were already in CBI custody since their arrest on November 15, Jayachandran was arrested on Sunday by the investigating agency.Before being removed, Darbari was OC Joint Director General, Mahendroo was Deputy DG and Jayachandran Joint DG (Finance).During the arguments, the CBI prosecutor, who was seeking seven days custody, said, “the accused, who are highly connected and powerful, are evasive, non-cooperative and not coming up with the truth during the probe.””Moreover, they are required to be confronted with the voluminous incriminating documents which have been seized by the CBI,” the prosecutor said.Darbari was part of the empowered committee, which was responsible for the QBR, the agency said, adding that the documents showed that he fabricated e-mails and accepted the illegal gratification.Detailing the role of the accused, CBI said they entered into a criminal conspiracy by abusing their official position and awarded work to M/s AM Car and Van Hire Limited on the basis of false and forged documents (emails) and thereby caused a huge loss to the government and corresponding illegal gain to the firm.advertisementSenior advocate R N Mittal, appearing for Darbari, rejected the charge of his client being evasive during the probe.”What for they (CBI) want the custody of the accused? I can file an affidavit to the fact that he (Darbari) was not questioned for three days,” the defence counsel said.CBI had lodged two separate cases against the former OC officials.The first case was registered by CBI under IPC and Prevention of Corruption Act in relation to the award of contract to AM car and Van Hire Limited in relation to the QBR.They have been booked under sections 468 (forgery of court records and public documents), 471 (using forged documents as genuine), 120-B (criminal conspiracy) of IPC and Prevention of Corruption Act.The second case involves A M Films and the probe agency had named Patel, Mahendroo, Darbari and others under sections 420 (cheating), 120-B (criminal conspiracy) of IPC and Prevention of Corruption Act.With inputs from PTIlast_img read more

IIT-Delhi student seeks Aamir’s help to highlight road safety issue

first_imgOne person dies every five minutes on Indian roads. Not something that is going to shock many of us.The good thing is that there is someone who has decided to do something about it. Indian Institute of Tecnology (IIT)-Delhi student Dikshant Sharm has written to Aamir Khan to highlight the issue of road safety through his hugely popular reality TV show Satyamev Jayate in the coming season.Aamir Khan.IITian Dikshant lost four of his friends in a road accident when they undertook a trip to Rajasthan to celebrate their placements. Two of them lost their lives and two others were injured badly when the Innova they were travelling in overturned near Jaisalmer in March this year.Dikshant has been seeking signatures (via from people to petition Aamir Khan and Satyamev Jayate to do a show on fatal road accidents. He has so far got over 32,000 people to sign the petition.In his petition, Dikshant states, “Someone told me that the lives of my friends could have been saved if they were taken care of immediately. But no help arrived for about 30 minutes and they succumbed to their injuries.”I have realised that the impact of road accidents are huge. Not only do they claim lives, but they also have a devastating impact on the lives of those who are involved. If a loved one of yours has been involved in the accident it haunts you for the rest of your life.”Ever since Aamir Khan’s reality show Satyamev Jayate went on air two years ago, it has created awareness about burning issues that afflict Indian society. Aamir and his reality show have been successful in starting a debate on many topics the show took up,advertisementSatayamev Jayate’s director, Satyajit Bhatkal confirmed having received Dikshant’s petition. “The team of Satyamev Jayate met this group of students. We were very moved by their story and what they intend to do.”Bhatkal added, “Taking a leaf out of their life, these students have turned a personal tragedy into a larger issue that affects society at large. We are very positive that we should do something on this issue.”last_img read more

Manipur PSC to recruit at 52 various posts

first_imgManipur Public Service Commission has notified for recruitment at various posts. The candidates eligible for the post may apply through prescribed format before August 25, 2014.Vacancies: 52Manipur Education Service Grade- III: 41 Inspector of Taxes: 8 Deputy Director (TRI): 1 Under Secretary (Law): 1 Assistant Draftsman (Law): 1Pay ScaleRs.9300-34800/- + GP Rs.4300/- for Manipur Education Service Grade- III.Rs.9300-34800/- + GP Rs.4200/- for Inspector of Taxes.Rs.9300-34800/- + GP Rs.5400/- for Deputy Director (TRI), Under Secretary (Law) and Assistant Draftsman (Law).Eligibility CriteriaEducational QualificationManipur Education Service Grade- III: Candidates should have a Master’s degree with B.Ed.Inspector of Taxes: Candidates should be at least a graduate with minimum 55 per cent marks & have done a certificate course in basic Computer Application.Deputy Director (TRI): Candidates should have a master degree in Sociology/History/Political Science/Anthropology/Geography.Under Secretary (Law): Candidates should have a bachelor or master degree in Law or equivalent.Assistant Draftsman (Law): candidates should have a degree in Law or equivalent and adequate proficiency in English and Manipuri.Age LimitCandidates should belong to the age group of 21 years to 38 years as on July 01, 2014 for Manipur Education Service Grade- III.Age limit of the candidates should not exceed 38 years as on July 01, 2014 for remaining posts.Selection ProcessEligible candidates will have to go through a  written examination and the short listed candidates will be called for an Interview. before final selection.How to ApplyApplication Form, duly complete in all respect along with attested copies of all required Certificates / Documents and mentioned as “Application for the Post of ________” on the envelope in which the form would be sent should be submitted to the Manipur Public Service Commission, North AOC/ D.M. Road, Imphal-795001 Manipur/ India  Candidates should mention “Application for the Post of ________” on the envelope in which the form would be sent.Application feeGeneral/OBC category applicants have to pay Rs.200/- and SC/ST category candidates have to pay Rs.50/- as application fees in cash payable to Secretary, Manipur Public Service Commission, Imphal.Physically Handicapped candidates are exempted from examination fee.Important DatesOpening Date of Application Forms: July 25, 2014Closing Date of Application Forms: August 25, 2014advertisementlast_img read more