Shoreline plant and animal communities close to a retreating tidewater glacier on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia displayed a series of physical and biological gradients from the open sea to the glacier terminus. These included increasing scouring intensity caused by floating and/or grounded ice fragments as well as decreasing diversity and abundance of both macroflora and macrofauna. The correlation between gradients suggests that shoreline scouring intensity can be directly quantified from plant diversity and abundance, and that the colonisation of coastlines exposed to sustained ice-scouring is not stochastic like that following single massive ice-scouring events, but directional like recovery from small scale disturbances. However, colonisation following small-scale disturbance events is much more rapid than that associated with continual scouring. Indeed recovery from continual scouring is so protracted that affected shores are held for a prolonged period at a particular phase of the normal spring annual spring colonisation process by local ice-scouring intensity.
We used the otoliths from a sample of Dissostichus eleginoides pre-recruits, whose length density was distinctly polymodal, to see whether ages estimated by reading otoliths were congruent with the length modes observed. Length densities by age were compared graphically with the overall length density observed. Additionally, ages were predicted for each fish based on length, and compared with ages estimated from reading otoliths in a goodness-of-fit test. The majority of the otoliths (83.6%) were estimated to be from fish 1+ or 2+ years old, with mean total lengths of 32.5 cm and 41.3 cm respectively. No difference was found between predicted and estimated ages. We conclude that the two dominant modes observed in the length density represent different age cohorts separated by one year.
This paper summarizes the results of krill demographic studies from the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources 2000 Survey-a large-scale krill survey across the Scotia Sea conducted in January/February 2000. Standard Rectangular Midwater Trawl net tows were carried out at midnight and midday stations between 20degrees and 70degreesW south of the Polar Front. The overall mean numerical density and biomass of krill estimated from nets (247 krill per 1000 m(3) and 18.7 g m(-2), respectively) were similar to lower values reported previously for the Southwest Atlantic, and comparable with high values for other regions of the Southern Ocean. Krill varied in mean size across the survey area, with cluster analyses showing three distinct groups of length-frequency distribution. Small juvenile and immature krill occurred east of the South Orkney Islands. Adult krill 50 mm were mostly restricted to the west of the South Orkney Islands. Maturity stage composition indicated that peak spawning occurred before early February. Distribution of the spawning stock showed two hotspots, the first between the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands, and the second around the South Sandwich Islands. Reproductive krill were largely absent in the central Scotia Sea and around South Georgia. Krill larvae concentrations occurred slightly to the east of the spawning stock. Mean density of larvae in the western Scotia Sea was 2044 m(-2), but only scattered aggregations of larvae were recorded east of 36degreesW (2 m(-2)). Recruitment indices for 1- and 2-year-old krill were low in the western part of the survey area, the outflow from the Bellingshausen Sea/Antarctic Peninsula region (R-1 = 0.0, R-2 = 0.11) indicating spawning failure and/or poor recruitment for several years. In the eastern part of the survey area, mostly the outflow of the Weddell Sea, recruitment indices were high and above the long-term average (R-1 = 0.60, R-2 = 0.72), suggesting a population with constant and successful reproduction, recruitment and mortality. The distribution and structure of the krill population did not show any clear relationship to the position of the major oceanic fronts in the Scotia Sea.
To evaluate and extend the record of decadal climate variability, we present a synthesis of 23 coral oxygen isotope records from the tropical Indo-Pacific that extends back to A. D. 1850. Principal components analysis (PCA) on detrended records reveals a leading pattern of variance with significant interannual (3 – 5 year) and decadal (9 – 14 year) variability. The temporal evolution and spatial pattern of this variability closely resembles the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) pattern across both time scales, suggesting that this decadal tropical variability is fundamentally related to ENSO. The 19th century experienced stronger decadal tropical climate variability, compared to the 20th. Decadal variability in the tropical oceans thus remains underestimated by analysis of direct observations. Citation: Ault, T. R., J. E. Cole, M. N. Evans, H. Barnett, N. J. Abram, A. W. Tudhope, and B. K. Linsley (2009), Intensified decadal variability in tropical climate during the late 19th century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08602, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036924.
Aim: To present a synthesis of past biogeographic analyses and a new approach based on spatially explicit biodiversity information for the Antarctic region to identify biologically distinct areas in need of representation in a protected area network. Location Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic.Methods: We reviewed and summarized published biogeographic studies of the Antarctic. We then developed a biogeographic classification for terrestrial conservation planning in Antarctica by combining the most comprehensive source of Antarctic biodiversity data available with three spatial frameworks: (1) a 200-km grid, (2) a set of areas based on physical parameters known as the environmental domains of Antarctica and (3) expert-defined bioregions. We used these frameworks, or combinations thereof, together with multivariate techniques to identify biologically distinct areas.Results: Early studies of continental Antarctica typically described broad bioregions, with the Antarctic Peninsula usually identified as biologically distinct from continental Antarctica; later studies suggested a more complex biogeography. Increasing complexity also characterizes the sub-Antarctic and marine realms, with differences among studies often attributable to the focal taxa. Using the most comprehensive terrestrial data available and by combining the groups formed by the environmental domains and expert-defined bioregions, we were able to identify 15 biologically distinct, ice-free, Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs), encompassing the continent and close lying islands.Main conclusions: Ice-free terrestrial Antarctica comprises several distinct bioregions that are not fully represented in the current Antarctic Specially Protected Area network. Biosecurity measures between these ACBRs should also be developed to prevent biotic homogenization in the region.
Understanding relationships between environmental changes and soil microbial respiration is critical for predicting changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) fluxes and content. The maritime Antarctic is experiencing one of the fastest rates of warming in the world and is therefore a key location to examine the effect of temperature on SOC mineralization by the respiration of soil micro-organisms. However, depletion of the labile substrates at higher temperatures relative to the total SOC and greater temperature sensitivity of recalcitrant components of the SOC confound simple interpretations of the effects of warming. We have addressed these issues by testing the hypothesis that respiration by heterotrophic soil micro-organisms is not down-regulated with increasing temperature by comparing the increase in biomass-specific respiration rate with temperature to the increase in respiration rate per unit SOC. We used five soils from the maritime Antarctic ranging in latitude and SOC content and measured the soil respiratory responses to temperatures ranging from 2 to 50 °C in laboratory incubations lasting up to 31 days. In all cases, soil respiration increased with temperature up to 50 °C, even though this exceeds the temperatures normally be experienced, indicating that the community contained sufficient physiological diversity to be able to respire over large temperature ranges. Both the biomass-specific respiration rate and the overall rate of SOC mineralization increased with temperature, which we interpret as respiration by soil micro-organisms not down-regulating relative to temperature.
Polar lows are intense, small-scale cyclones in the high latitudes. Typically, polar lows are initiated through baroclinic processes, but they sometimes evolve into a post-baroclinic mature stage where air-sea interaction becomes more important. In this stage some polar lows have developed hurricane-like cloud structures, and idealised axisymmetric hurricane models have indicated that air-sea interaction-fuelled pressure drops of up to 50 hPa are theoretically possible in polar environments. Here we study a polar low that formed in an extreme marine cold air outbreak over the Barents Sea and which had cloud structures with similarities to hurricanes. Using a high-resolution weather model, we artificially modified the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to assess if the polar low was close to developing into a true hurricane-like system, with air-sea interaction processes leading to intensification in the post-baroclinic, mature phase of its life cycle. The polar low simulations with SSTs augmented by 2–6 K produced more intense mature phases than the control experiment (with unmodified SSTs). The intensity of the polar low in the latter of these, which it must be pointed out was unrealistic with an SST increase of 6 K, surpassed the intensity in the earlier baroclinic phase. The experiment where the SSTs were reduced by 2 K did not produce a much weaker polar low than the control run. Broadly speaking, our experiments suggest that in this case large and unrealistic SST increases would be needed for apparently hurricane-like polar lows to exhibit true hurricane-like behaviour, but nevertheless air-sea interaction did drive a more intense and prolonged mature phase.
The phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (pRES) is a powerful new instrument that can measure the depth of internal layers and the glacier bed to millimetre accuracy. We use a stationary 16-antenna pRES array on Store Glacier in West Greenland to measure the three-dimensional orientation of dipping internal reflectors, extending the capabilities of pRES beyond conventional depth sounding. This novel technique portrays the effectiveness of pRES in deriving the orientation of dipping internal layers that may complement profiles obtained through other geophysical surveying methods. Deriving ice vertical strain rates from changes in layer depth as measured by a sequence of pRES observations assumes that the internal reflections come from vertically beneath the antenna. By revealing the orientation of internal reflectors and the potential deviation from nadir of their associated reflections, the use of an antenna array can correct this assumption. While the array configuration was able to resolve the geometry of englacial layers, the same configuration could not be used to accurately image the glacier bed. Here, we use simulations of the performance of different array geometries to identify configurations that can be tailored to study different types of basal geometry for future deployments.
A central paradigm in conservation biology is that population bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity and population viability. In an era of biodiversity loss and climate change, understanding the determinants and consequences of bottlenecks is therefore an important challenge. However, as most studies focus on single species, the multitude of potential drivers and the consequences of bottlenecks remain elusive. Here, we combined genetic data from over 11,000 individuals of 30 pinniped species with demographic, ecological and life history data to evaluate the consequences of commercial exploitation by 18th and 19th century sealers. We show that around one third of these species exhibit strong signatures of recent population declines. Bottleneck strength is associated with breeding habitat and mating system variation, and together with global abundance explains much of the variation in genetic diversity across species. Overall, bottleneck intensity is unrelated to IUCN status, although the three most heavily bottlenecked species are endangered. Our study reveals an unforeseen interplay between human exploitation, animal biology, demographic declines and genetic diversity.
Surface mass balance (SMB) is the net input of mass on a glacier’s upper surface, composed of snow deposition, melt and erosion processes, and is a major contributor to the overall mass balance. Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in West Antarctica has been dynamically imbalanced since the early 1990s, indicating that discharge of solid ice into the oceans exceeds snow deposition. However, observations of the SMB pattern on the fast flowing regions are scarce, and are potentially affected by the firn’s strain history. Here, we present new observations from radar-derived stratigraphy and a relatively dense network of firn cores, collected along a ~900 km traverse of PIG. Between 1986 and 2014, the SMB along the traverse was 0.505 m w.e. a−1 on average with a gradient of higher snow deposition in the South-West compared with the North-East of the catchment. We show that along ~80% of the traverse the strain history amounts to a misestimation of SMB below the nominal uncertainty, but can exceed it by a factor 5 in places, making it a significant correction to the SMB estimate locally. We find that the strain correction changes the basin-wide SMB by ~0.7 Gt a−1 and thus forms a negligible (1%) correction to the glacier’s total SMB.